Black adolescents are eight times more likely to be killed by gunfire than their white peers and 45% of all fatal shootings involved African American children, even though they make up only 15% of the total population in the United States.
In the year 2000 the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child was produced by the United Nations. The protocol stipulated that no child under the age of 18 would be forced into armed service, and since then it has been ratified by over 110 countries. Amnesty International claims that this may have just been a public relations ploy because eleven years after the ratification of the protocol it is estimated that over 300,000 boys and girls under the age of 18 are serving in armies around the world. (Human Rights Watch, 2008)(SOS Childrens Villages, 2008) Though the estimates vary, it is proposed that nearly one tenth of all child soldiers are in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
outh who live in violent urban neighborhoods are exposed to high levels of violence, which can lead to the development of PTSD and decreased quality of life, although public health interventions may help, further research needs to be done in this area.
A history of racialized policies, the rise of gun violence and the epidemic of homicide plaguing young, urban, African American Men
Nell Painter’s ambitious undertaking with “Creating Black Americans” reflects a public desire to understand more about the lived experience of African American people. Painter attempts to do this without exhaustive quotes or interviews, but instead by utilizing art. The following review discusses the specifics of her choices as well as the positive and negative implications of publishing a work in this style.
“Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness... better than any other work that I know displays that desire ... one might indeed say the need -- in Western psychology to set Africa up as a foil to Europe, as a place of negations at once remote and vaguely familiar, in comparison with which Europe's own state of spiritual grace will be manifest.”
The geographical history of the subcontinent will be discussed as it pertains to the formation of modern Indian culture, including a discussion of India’s once pristine and now largely polluted river system. A historical background will also be given, discussing the multiple invasions and colonization of the subcontinent and the impact that has had on the economic and social wellbeing of the country. The caste system, which was implemented nearly three thousand years ago, still plays an integral role in the dynamics of Indian culture and is the primary reason that so many people have been living in poverty for centuries.